Difference between revisions of "LRMoore, Univ of Southern Maine"

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===Higher order taxa===
 
===Higher order taxa===
  
Domain (Bacteria); Phylum (Proteobacteria); Class (Gammaproteobacteria); Order (Enterobacteriales); Family (Enterobacteriaceae); Genus (Rahnella)
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Domain; Phylum; Class; Order; family [Others may be used.  Use [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/ NCBI] link to find]
  
 
===Species===
 
===Species===
Species (aquatilis)
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[[Image:Adbacterial.jpg‎|frame|right|150px|PUT FIGURE LEGEND HERE ALONG WITH THE REFERENCE]]
  
''Rahnella aquatilis''
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''Genus species''
  
 
==Description and significance==
 
==Description and significance==
Rahnella aquatilis is a relatively rare gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria which has been found in fresh water, soil, certain animals such as snails [5] and certain beetles, [4] and isolated human clinical specimens. [2]  This bacterium is of importance because of its abundance and its disease-causing ability in humans.  Many different strains have been isolated, and presumably more will be disocvered.
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Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why you think it is important.
  
 
==Genome structure==
 
==Genome structure==
As of the year 2000, at least 70 strains of Rahnella aquatilis have been identified [1].  According to the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), the whole genome has been sequenced for R. aquatilis Strain Y9602This particular strain has a genome consisting of 4,864,217 basepairs, with two identified plasmids [2]. Another strain, Rahnella aquatilis CUETM 77-115, was shown to have a genome consisting of 5,440,269 basepairs, and had a G-C content of 52.1% [3].  
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Describe the size and content of the genome.  How many chromosomes?  Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence?
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==Cell and colony structure==
 
==Cell and colony structure==
Rahnella aquatilis is gram-negative rod-shaped bacterium, about 2-3 microns in length. Strain ISL 19 was isolated from soybean rhizosphere, and was seen to have several flagella for motility [6]. The bacterium can be readily cultured in the laboratory.  
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Interesting features of cell structure.
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Interesting features of colony structure.
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==Metabolism==
 
==Metabolism==
Rahnella aquatilis is a facultative anaerobe (it can live in the absence or presence of oxygen) that fixes Nitrogen [2].  R. aquatilis metabolizing whey lactose produces high levels of organic acids (except for lactic acid) [7].      
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Energy source(s); external electron donor(s) (=reductant source(s)); carbon source(s); oxygen classification; important molecules it produces.
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==Ecology==
 
==Ecology==
Rahnella aquatilis is named so because of its prevalence in fresh water.  It has been found around the globe in places like the United States, Korea, Japan, Russia, the Ukraine, and Egypt.  R. aquatilis has also been found in humans, soil,  and snails [5]. One of the most unusual places for the the microbe to have been found was inside the gut of certain speicies of longicorn beetles in Korea [4].
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Habitat; symbiosis; contributions to the environment.
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metagenomic data link
  
  
 
==Pathology==
 
==Pathology==
Rahnella aquatilis is pathogenic in humans.  The organism can be diagnosed in patients via blood cultures, respiratory washings, and in wound cultures.  Various infections, such as bacteremia (from renal infection), sepsis, respiratory infection, and urinary tract infection can be the result.  One case involved an 11-month-old girl with congenital heart disease who developed infective endocarditis [8]. Another case involved a 76-year-old male who had prostatic hyperplasia presenting with acute pyelonephritis [9]. It is noted that R. aquatilis can potentially cause life-threatening infections in humans, infants and adults alike, especially the immunocompromised and organ transplant recipients. Treatments have included intravenous and oral levofloxacin therapy (and other members of the quinolone family).
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How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors.
  
  
 
==References==
 
==References==
[1] J Chemother. 2000 Feb;12(1):30-9. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10768513>
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[Sample reference] [http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/content/62/2/330; Sylvie Cousin, Marie-Laure Gulat-Okalla, Laurence Motreff, Catherine Gouyette, Christiane Bouchier, Dominique Clermont, and Chantal Bizet. Lactobacillus gigeriorum sp. nov., isolated from chicken crop. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol February 2012 62:330-334; published ahead of print March 18, 2011.}
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[doi:10.1099/ijs.0.028217-0.]
[2] R.J. Martinez. J Bacteriol. 2012 Apr;194(8):2113-4. <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/genome/?term=Rahnella%20aquatilis>
 
 
[3] Robert Martinez, University of Alabama. <http://genome.jgi-psf.org/rahac/rahac.info.html>
 
 
 
[4] Park, Doo-Sang, Hyun-Woo Oh, Won-Jin Jeong, et al. "A Culture-Based Study of the Bacterial Communities within the Guts
 
of Nine Longicorn Beetle Species and their Exo-enzyme Producing Properties
 
for Degrading Xylan and Pectin." The Journal of Microbiology, October 2007, p. 394-401.
 
 
 
[5] Brenner, Don J., Hans E. Muller, Arnold G. Steigerwalt, et al. "Two new Rahnella genomospecies that cannot
 
be phenotypically differentiated from Rahnella aquatilis." lnternstional Journal of Systematic Bacteriology (1 998), 48, 141 -149.
 
 
 
 
[6] Kim, Kil Yong, Diann Jordan, and Hari B. Krishnan. "Rahnella aquatilis, a bacterium isolated from soybean rhizosphere, can solubilize hydroxyapatite." FEMS Microbiology Letters Volume 153, Issue 2, 15 August 1997, Pages 273–277.
 
 
 
[7] Pintado, Manuela E., Ana I.E. Pintado, and F. Xavier Malcata. "Fate of Nitrogen During Metabolism of Whey Lactose by Rahnella aquatilis." Journal of Dairy Science, Volume 82, Issue 11, November 1999, Pages 2315-2326.
 
 
 
[8] Matsukura H., Katayama K., Kitano N., et al. "Infective endocarditis caused by an unusual gram-negative rod, Rahnella aquatilis." Pediatric Cardiology, 1996 Mar-Apr; 17(2): 108-11.
 
 
 
[9] Tash, Kaley. "Rahnella aquatilis Bacteremia from a Suspected Urinary Source." Journal of Clinical Microbiology. May 2005, vol. 43 no. 5, 2526-2528.
 
 
 
 
 
  
  
Edited by Christopher John Connor, student of Dr. Lisa R. Moore, University of Southern Maine, Department of Biological Sciences, http://www.usm.maine.edu/bio
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Edited by PUT YOUR NAME HERE of Dr. Lisa R. Moore, University of Southern Maine, Department of Biological Sciences, http://www.usm.maine.edu/bio

Revision as of 13:11, 2 September 2015

This student page has not been curated.

A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus LRMoore, Univ of Southern Maine

Classification

Higher order taxa

Domain; Phylum; Class; Order; family [Others may be used. Use NCBI link to find]

Species

PUT FIGURE LEGEND HERE ALONG WITH THE REFERENCE

Genus species

Description and significance

Describe the appearance, habitat, etc. of the organism, and why you think it is important.

Genome structure

Describe the size and content of the genome. How many chromosomes? Circular or linear? Other interesting features? What is known about its sequence?


Cell and colony structure

Interesting features of cell structure. Interesting features of colony structure.


Metabolism

Energy source(s); external electron donor(s) (=reductant source(s)); carbon source(s); oxygen classification; important molecules it produces.


Ecology

Habitat; symbiosis; contributions to the environment. metagenomic data link


Pathology

How does this organism cause disease? Human, animal, plant hosts? Virulence factors.


References

[Sample reference] [http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/content/62/2/330; Sylvie Cousin, Marie-Laure Gulat-Okalla, Laurence Motreff, Catherine Gouyette, Christiane Bouchier, Dominique Clermont, and Chantal Bizet. Lactobacillus gigeriorum sp. nov., isolated from chicken crop. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol February 2012 62:330-334; published ahead of print March 18, 2011.} [doi:10.1099/ijs.0.028217-0.]


Edited by PUT YOUR NAME HERE of Dr. Lisa R. Moore, University of Southern Maine, Department of Biological Sciences, http://www.usm.maine.edu/bio