Viral Biorealm

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Educators: You may assign Microbial Biorealm page creation and editing as a project for your students. We create a template page for your assignment, which you may edit to meet your needs. See for example the pages created by the following classes:

Your students receive individual passwords. Assessment and "grading" are up to you; after your class is over, we review pages for our standards. Students of all levels, from first-year to graduate students, have contributed pages to our site.

Managing Editor: Daniel Barich '05
Advisor: Joan Slonczewski, Biology Dept, Kenyon College.
Funding: HHMI award to Kenyon College, 2004

Student Editors: Molly Schlemmer '08, Shrochis Karki '09, Daniel Barich '05, Ryotaro Tashiro '09


For alphabetical listing, see Taxonomy Index. New virus contributions are welcome.
To become an editor, you can request a free account.

Virus Classification: The Baltimore System



Contents

Group I. Double-stranded DNA viruses

Replicate using host or viral DNA polymerase.

Non-enveloped bacteriophages:

Myoviridae
Siphoviridae
Tectiviridae

Archaeal viruses:

Ampullaviridae
Bicaudaviridae
Fuselloviridae
Globuloviridae
Guttaviridae
Lipothrixviridae
Rudiviridae

Non-enveloped animal viruses:

Adenoviridae
Papillomaviridae
Phycodnaviridae
Iridoviridae

Enveloped animal viruses:

Herpesviridae
Poxviridae
Baculoviridae

Group II. Single-stranded DNA

Genome consists of (+) sense DNA. Requires a host DNA polymerase to generate the complementary strand. Non-enveloped.

Non-enveloped bacteriophages:

Inoviridae

Non-enveloped animal viruses:

Parvoviridae
Circoviridae
Circovirus

Non-enveloped plant viruses:

Geminiviridae


Group III. Double-stranded RNA

Requires viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase; usually packages the polymerase before exiting host cell.

Non-segmented, enveloped, bacteriophage:

Cystoviridae

Segmented, non-enveloped, animal and plant hosts:

Reoviridae
Orthoreovirus
Rotavirus
Birnaviridae
Varicosavirus


Group IV. (+) Sense single-stranded RNA viruses

Require viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase to generate (-) template for progeny (+) genome. Usually non-segmented.

Non-enveloped bacteriophages:

Leviviridae

Non-enveloped animal and plant viruses:

Bromoviridae
Bromovirus
Tombusviridae
Tombusvirus
Picornaviridae
Aphthovirus
Enterovirus
Hepatovirus
Rhinovirus
Tobamovirus
Potyviridae
Potyvirus

Enveloped animal and plant viruses:

Coronaviridae
Coronavirus
Flaviviridae
Hepacivirus
Flavivirus
Togaviridae

Group V. (-) Sense single-stranded RNA viruses

Require viral RNA-dependent RNA transcriptase.

Segmented, enveloped:

Orthomyxoviridae

Nonsegmented, enveloped:

Filoviridae
Rhabdoviridae
Paramyxoviridae

Segmented (+/-) strand enveloped:

Arenaviridae
Bunyaviridae
Hantavirus


Group VI. RNA Reverse Transcribing Viruses (Retroviruses)

Require viral reverse transcriptase to generate DNA copy for integration into host chromosome. Package transcriptase before exiting host cell.

Retroviridae
Lentivirus
Human Immunodeficiency Virus


Group VII. DNA Reverse Transcribing Viruses (Pararetroviruses)

DNA is transcribed to RNA intermediate; reverse-transcribed to DNA. Infects plant cells, which have cytoplasmic reverse transcriptase; or package a viral reverse transcriptase.

Non-enveloped plant viruses:

Caulimoviridae
Badnavirus
Caulimovirus

Enveloped animal viruses:

Hepadnaviridae
Orthohepadnavirus
Hepatitis B virus
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