Bacillus oceanisediminis

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A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Bacillus oceanisediminis

Classification

Higher order taxa

Domain: Bacteria; Phylum: Firmicutes; Class: Bacilli; Order: Bacillales; Family: Bacillaceae; Genus: Bacillus; Species: B. oceanisediminis; Strain: H2T

Species

Bacillus oceanisediminis

Description and significance

Bacillus oceanisediminis is a rod-shaped aerobic bacterium that is gram-positive and spore-forming (1, 2). B. oceanisediminis was isolated from a sample of sediment from the South Sea in China at a depth of 823 m (2). It is a decomposer which means that it helps clean sediments in the ocean ecosystem and lives in marine sediment. B. oceanisediminis can be found singular and/or in pairs (2). Due to its ability to grow in a temperature range of 4°C-45°C and a pH of 6-10, it can survive in many different environments (1).

Genome structure

B. oceanisediminis has a large genome size that is approximately 5.8 Mb (1, 2). It was found that B. oceanisediminis has a larger genome size than most Bacillus species (1). This means that it has the possibility of being very diverse due to its ability to encode a variety of genes. It has a genomic DNA G+C value of 44.8 mol% (2).16S rRNA gene analysis showed that B. oceanisediminis is closely related to Bacillus firmus and Bacillus infantis (2).

Cell and colony structure

B. oceanisediminis is a gram-positive bacillus (rod-shaped). It is approximately 2-3µm long (1). It has four major polar lipids that are made up of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, and an aminophospolipid that is unknown (2). Its isoprenoid quinone is MK-7 and there is one major fatty acid which is iso-C (15:0) (2).

Metabolism

B. oceanisediminis contains phosphotransferase systems. Phosphotransferase systems are used to obtain different carbon sources. Some carbon sources utilized by B. oceanisediminis include glucose, mannitol, sucrose, maltose, and fructose (1). Fermentation can also occur in B. oceanisediminis. Acetate, ethanol, and lactate are some of the fermentation products that were found in B. oceanisediminis that helps aid in fermentation. Proteins such as copper, cobalt-zinc-cadmium and tellurium resistance proteins were found in B. oceanisediminis to be connected to biomineralization (1). This means that they are able to create minerals.

Ecology

B. oceanisediminis can grow at a temperature of 4°C-45°C and has a pH ranging from 6-10 (2). The best growing conditions for this bacterium is 37°C at a pH of 7.0 (1). It is halophilic and can live in various habitats due to its range of growing temperature and pH (1, 2). B. oceanisediminis is positive for oxidase and catalase, which means that it uses oxygen as its main respiration source (2).

Pathology

B. oceanisediminis is resistant to aztreonam and was found to be susceptible to many antibiotics such as ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and penicillin G. It is not known whether B. oceanisediminis is pathogenic or non-pathogenic (2).

References

1. Lee, Y., Lee, S., Jeong, H., Kim, H., Ryu, N., Kim, B., Lee, H., Lee, D., and Lee, Sang. 2012. Draft Genome Sequence of Bacillus Oceanisediminis 2691. Journal of Bacteriology. Volume 194, 6351-6352. [doi: 10.1128/JB.01643-12]

2. Zhang, J., Wang, J., Fang, C., Song, F., Xin, Y., Qu, L., and Ding, K. 2010. Bacillus oceanisediminis sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. Volume 60, 2924–2929. [doi: 10.1099/ijs.0.019851-0]


Edited by Bouradee Kim of Dr. Lisa R. Moore, University of Southern Maine, Department of Biological Sciences, http://www.usm.maine.edu/bio