Hyphomonas neptunium

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A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Hyphomonas neptunium


Higher order taxa

Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhodobacterales; Hyphomonadaceae; Hyphomonas


neptunium NCBI: Taxonomy |}

Cell Structure and Description

Hyphomonas neptunium is a marine, biphasic prosthecate, which refers to an organism having a stalk or an appendage. Hyphomonas neptunium, as one of the eight species of the genus Hyphomanas, was first isolated from the seawater of Barcelona, Spain. It was originally named Hyphomicrobium neptium, but later was amended to its current name based on DNA homology. DNA-DNA hybridization information showed a closer relationship to Hyphomanas polymorpha(Pongratz.1957) and its inability to utilize C1 molecules as carbon source further supports its closer relationship to Polymorpha. Pongratz in 1957 first described the genus Hyphomonas upon isolation a budding prostecate bacterium from the nasal mucus of a diver with infectious sinusitis. Hyphomonas is unique in the sense that it does not divide by binary fusion but, rather divides by asymmetrical budding. The mother cell are non-motile while the daughters are motile, until they become mother cells themselves. (hyphomonas.com)The mobile swarmer cells use single polar flagellum and since they do not respond to any chemotatic stimuli, it suggests that Hyphomonas neptunium motility is a random dispersal mechanism rather than stimulus-controlled navigation system for locating specific location.(jb.asm.org) Hyphomonas uses its prostecae also in reproduction; the genetic materials are transfered to the daughter cell via the prostecae. Hyphomonas bacteria are Gram-negative and as a bacterium belong to alpha-Proteobacteria, which contains over 50 genera, the outer membrane is mainly composed of lipopolysaccarides.

Genome structure

Its genome is circular with 3705021 bp and has 3,552 genes. it has 3705021 nucleotides and 47 RNA gens. It has total of 162 transporter proteins and the major transporter types include ATP-dependent (23.5%, secondary Transporter(66%), ion channels(5.6%) and phosphotransferase system or PTS(2.5%). (www.membranetransport.org/transporter2/php?0OID=hnep1)


Hyphomonas neptunium is a heterotrophic organism that uses a wide range of substrates including nitrogen as the main energy source of metabolism. Hyphomonas species catabolize proteins and amino acids, however, they cannot utilize C1 as their carbon source. They also require an absolute <1% salt formulations.


Hyphomonas neptunium is a marine prostecate. Generally, prostecate and budding bacteria are found virtually everywhere, including some of the most extreme places like Antazrctic sea ice, ocean hydrothermal vents and even in soils. Many species are oligotrophic. Currents studies suggest that Hyphomonas play important roles in biofilm formation by production of localized capsule, extracellular, polymeric substances.


Ronald M. Weiner,1,2 Meredith Melick,1 Kathleen O’Neill2 and Ernesto Quintero3, "Hyphomonas adhaerens sp. nov., Hyphomonas johnsonii sp. nov. and Hyphomonas rosenbergii sp. nov., marine budding and prosthecate bacteria". "International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology (2000), 50, 459–469.

Jonathan H. Badger,1* Timothy R. Hoover,2 Yves V. Brun,3 Ronald M. Weiner,4 Michael T. Laub,5 Gladys Alexandre,6 Jan Mrázek,2 Qinghu Ren,1 Ian T. Paulsen,1 Karen E. Nelson,1 Hoda M. Khouri,1 Diana Radune,1 Julia Sosa,1 Robert J. Dodson,1 Steven A. Sullivan,1 M. J. Rosovitz,1 Ramana Madupu,1 Lauren M. Brinkac,1 A. Scott Durkin,1 Sean C. Daugherty,1 Sagar P. Kothari,1 Michelle Gwinn Giglio,1 Liwei Zhou,1 Daniel H. Haft,1 Jeremy D. Selengut,1 Tanja M. Davidsen,1 Qi Yang,1 Nikhat Zafar,1 and Naomi L. Ward1,7, "Comparative Genomic Evidence for a Close Relationship between the Dimorphic Prosthecate Bacteria Hyphomonas neptunium and Caulobacter crescentus". "Journal of Bacteriology, October 2006, p. 6841-6850, Vol. 188, No. 19.

[Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. "Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500.

Edited by student of Rachel Larsen and Kit Pogliano

Edited by KMG