Jannaschia rubra

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A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Jannaschia rubra

Classification

Higher order taxa

Bacteria; Proteobacteria; Alphaproteobacteria; Rhodobacterales; Rhodobacteraceae; Jannaschia (Pujalte)

Species

rubra (Pujalte)

Description and significance

Jannaschia rubra grows as irregular pink colonies that do not swarm or luminescence. The cells are about 1.0-2.0 X 0.5 μm and divide by binary division. Initially, the cells form smooth, white colonies, but pigmentation collects as the cell grows. Cells may have 3 to 5 monopolar flagella enabling movement, and individual cells are rod shaped. Cells produce bacteriochlorophyll when grown in the dark (Pujalte).

Jannaschia rubra makes up a large percentage in the marine community making them a large asset to oceanic photosynthetic electron transport flux as well as the carbon cycle (JGI Microbes).

Genome structure

The cells contain one chromosome and one plasmid; the organism has 1462 base pairs in a linear DNA form (AJ748747). Jannaschia rubra’s type strain is known as 4SM3 (Pujalte).

Cell structure and metabolism

Jannaschia rubra is Gram-negative, minutely halophilic, aerobic, and chemo-organotrophic. It is unable ferment anaerobically, and does not reduce nitrates. It has tested positive for possessing cytochrome oxidase. Sodium and Magnesium are required for growth and growth temperature ranges from 4 to 25 degrees C. The salinity range is 0•34–9 for growth. It prefers organic and amino acids as its carbon source, and has the ability to metabolize D-xylose, Dglucose, D-fructose, D-galactose, D-mannose, glycerol, Dmannitol, D-sorbitol, pyruvate, succinate, fumarate, malate, lactate, acetate, DL-b-hydroxybutyrate, L-leucine, L-serine, L-glutamate, c-aminobutyric acid, L-ornithine, citrulline, L-aspartate, sarcosine and putrescine for growth; however, yeast extract was used as supplement (Pujalte).

It’s grown in vivo with pH of 7.6 under with the following ingredients as its bactomarine broth:

             Bacto yeast extract                          1.00   g
             Bacto peptone                                5.00   g
             Fe(III) citrate                              0.10   g
             NaCl                                        19.45   g
             MgCl2 (dried)                                5.90   g
             NaSO4                                        3.24   g
             CaCl2                                        1.80   g
             KCl                                          0.55   g
             Na2CO3                                       0.16   g
             KBr                                          0.08   g
             SrCl2                                       34.00   mg
             H3BO3                                       22.00   mg
             Na-silicate                                  4.00   mg
             NaF                                          2.40   mg
             (NH4)NO3                                     1.60   mg
             Na2HPO4                                      8.00   mg
             Distilled water                           1000.00   ml

(DSMZ_media)

Ecology

Jannaschia rubra was isolated from sea water in the Mediterranean near Valencia. Jannaschia in general is plentiful in coastal and open ocean surface waters, and they have significant numbers among the marine bacterioplankton community (Pujalte).

Pathology

Jannaschia sp. are not known to be disease agents.

Application to Biotechnology

There is no known application to biotechnology.

Current Research

As of February 7, 2006, the complete genome of Jannaschia sp. CCS1 was decoded by members working in Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Alamos National Laboratory (Jannaschia sp. CCS1).

Studies are still being conducted by Arahal DR, Lekunberri I, Gonzalez JM, Pascual J, Pujalte MJ, Pedros-Alio C, and Pinhassi J. in the University of Valencia (Pujalte).

The complete 16S RNA has been sequenced in 2004 (AJ748747).

References

“AJ748747. Reports: Jannaschia rubra” NCBI 22 Mar 2005. 2 May 2007. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/viewer.fcgi?db=nucleotide&val=57635346.

DSMZ_media. BRC Network Online. 2 May 2007. http://www.cabri.org/CABRI/srs-bin/wgetz?-id+6Zgtq1UreR1+[dsmz_media-Medium_no:514]+-e.

“Jannaschia sp. CCS1.” Joint Genome Institute 2004. 2 May 2007. http://genome.jgi-psf.org/draft_microbes/jan_c/jan_c.home.html.

Pujalte M. J. “Jannaschia rubra sp. nov., a red-pigmented bacterium isolated from sea water.” International Journal of Systemic and Evolutionary Biology 2005. 28 Apr 2007. http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/cgi/reprint/55/2/649.pdf.


KMG