Myroides pelagicus

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Classification

Higher order taxa

Domain: Bacteria, Phylum: Bacteroidetes, Class: Flavobacteria, Order: Flavobacteriales, Family: Flavobacterium odoratum, Genus: Myroides, Species: pelagicus

Species

Myroides pelagicus

Strain

The strain is SM1-T (=IAM 15337-T=KCTC 12661-T)

Description / Growth

Myroides pelagicus is an aerobic bacterium, meaning that it grows and thrives in oxygenated environments. The pigment of Myroides pelagicus is a yellowish orange color and grows in circular colonies on an agar. It is a gram-negative bacillus bacterium. They are described as short single rods and they are pink when stained and seen under a microscope. Myroides pelagicus lacks flagella, and it is non-motile because there is no bacterium moving or swarming around.

Myroides pelagicus size is 0.5-1 µm in diameter and 0.2-0.3 µm wide. Myroides pelagicus grows best when the temperature is from 10-37 °C. There is an absence of growth at 4 or 45 °C. Myroides pelagicus can handle up to 9.0% NaCl, while other species can only handle 5-6% NaCl. The range of pH for growth is 5.0-9.0. The DNA G+C content was 33.6mol%.

Genus Myroides

According to the 16S rRNA gene sequences Myroides pelagicus has a 93-95% sequence similarity with Myroides odoratimimus and Myroides odoratus, the other two species in the genus family.

All three species produce cholic acid, deoxycholic acid and the conjugate with glycine in marine broth.

Myroides pelagicus was distinguished from other the other species by the test results and characteristics. There were negative results for tests including: catalase, urease or esterase activity, and nitrate reduction. There were also negative results for L-histidine and urocanic acid. Positive results were found in the use of x-hydroxybutyric and succinamic acids.

Location / Habitat

Myroides pelagicus was found and isolated from the seawater off the coast of Thailand for a polyphasic taxonomic study.

Metabolism

The major cellular fatty acids are C15:0iso, C17:1ω9c iso and C17:0iso 3-OH.

There were 93 food sources tested and out of the 93, only 25 of them were utilized. Some of the food sources that were utilized was glycogen, methyl pyruvate and monomethyl succinate. Some sources that were not utilized had been cyclodextrin, dextrin, Tween 40, Tween 80, N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, adonitol, D-fructose and maltose.

Current Research

In a recent study on probiotics and their effects on inflammatory bowel disease, a strain of probiotics was obtained from the gut of the Drosophilia melanogaster (a species of fly) and tested. The test was to see if the probiotic would help the disease in anyway. Many bacterial isolates were found: PTH 2, PTH 4 and PTH 7. PTH 7 was tested further because it had the best results with antimicrobial potential, intestinal juice tolerance and hydrophobic property. According to 16S rDNA study, PTH 7 turned out to be Myroides pelagicus. In conlusion, Myroides pelagicus was tested on colitic animals and was successful with reducing the proinflammatory cytokine expression. Further tests will be needed to completely prove it could be used as a drug to manage colitis.

References

Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D., eds (2011). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist. Species 2000: Reading, UK. <www.catalogueoflife.org/annual-checklist/2011/.>

Hairul Islam V.I., Saravanan S., Preetam Raj JP., Gabriel Paulraj M., Ignacimuthu S. "Myroides pelagicus from the Gut of Drosophila melanogaster Attenuates Inflammation on Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis." Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014. Retrieved from web March 12, 2014

Vancanneyt M., Segers U., Torck U., Hoste B., Bernardet J.F., Vandamme P., and Kersters K. "Reclassification of Flavobacterium odoraturn (Stutzer 1929)Strains to a New Genus, Myroides, as Myroides odoratus comb. nov. and Myroides odoratimimus sp. nov." International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology." (1996). Volume 46, No 4. p. 926-932. Retrieved from web March 12, 2014 <http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/content/46/4/926.full.pdf?origin=publication_detail>

Yoon J., Maneerat S., Kawai F. and Yokota A. "Myroides pelagicus sp. nov., isolated from seawater in Thailand". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. (2006), 56, 1917–1920 Retrieved from web March 12, 2014 < http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/content/56/8/1917.full?sid=11681336-3840-4571-a3b8-5ffdba51ae5f >



Edited by (Bailey Nunan), student of Rachel Larsen at the University of Southern Maine