Nitrosomonas eutropha

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A Microbial Biorealm page on the genus Nitrosomonas eutropha

Classification

Higher order taxa

Domain: Bacteria

Phylum: Proteobacteria

Class: Betaproteobacteria

Order: Nitrosomonadales

Family: Nitrosomonadaceae

Genus: Nitrosomonas

Species: Nitrosomonas eutropha

Species

NCBI: [1]

Nitrosomonas eutropha

Description and significance

Nitrosomonas eutropha can be found in strongly eutrophic environments (those rich in organic nutrients and minerals) such as sewage disposal systems. Nitrosomonas eutropha also has a high tolerance for elevated ammonia concentrations. Nitrosomonas eutropha is able to grow anaerobically, utilizing nitrite as an electron acceptor and H2 as a reductant.

Genome structure

The genome Nitrosomonas eutropha has not been determined for all strains, but the genome of Nitrosomonas eutropha C91 C71 has been sequenced and researched extensively. The genome of Nitrosomonas eutropha C91 C71 consists of one chromosome and two plasmids. The length of the chromosome is observed to be 2.7 megabase pairs (Mbp) and encodes 2443 proteins and 47 RNAs. The two plasmids have a length of 0.065 Mbp and 0.056 Mbp respectively and encode for 55 and 52 proteins respectively.

Cell structure and metabolism

Nitrosomonas eutropha usually has a pleomorphic shape, appearing to resemble the shape of a rod to a pear, with the ability to be motile and is occasionally also found in short chains. Nitrosomonas eutropha is a gram-negative betaproteobacterium and related to the better studied Nitrosomonas europaea.

Nitrosomonas europaea possesses carboxysomes, a microcompartment made up of a protein shell that contains enzymes involved in carbon fixation reactions. Nitrosomonas eutropha primarily uses CO2 as it's carbon source. As an ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas eutropha catalyzes the oxidation of ammonia in order to meet its energy requirements for growth. The process of the oxidation of ammonia to nitrite is an important part of the biogeochemical Nitrogen Cycle, resulting in the step providing to plants the nitrogen they require to carry out the cycle. As a result, Nitrosomonas eutropha is also involved with limiting CO2 fixation.

Ecology

As an ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, Nitrosomonas eutropha is believed to contribute significantly to the global production of nitrous oxide, a product of nitrite reduction.

Pathology

Nitrosomonas eutropha is not known to have any pathogenic qualities.


References

Chain, P., J. Lamerdin, F. Larimer, W. Regala, V. Lao, M. Land, L. Hauser, A. Hooper, M. Klotz, J. Norton, L. Sayavedra-Soto, D. Arciero, N. Hommes, M. Whittaker, D. Arp. 2003. "Complete genome sequence of the ammonia oxidizing bacterium and obligate chemolithoautotroph Nitrosomonas europaea". J. Bacteriol. 185: 2759-2773.

Koops H-P, Böttcher B, Möller U, Pommerening-Röser A, Stehr G. "Classification of eight new species of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria: Nitrosomonas communis sp. nov., Nitrosomonas ureae sp. nov., Nitrosomonas aestuarii sp. nov., Nitrosomonas marina sp. nov., Nitrosomonas nitrosa sp. nov., Nitrosomonas eutropha sp. nov., Nitrosomonas oligotropha sp." nov. J Gen Microbiol. 1991; 13 :1689-1699.

Edited by student David Herrera of Rachel Larsen and Kit Pogliano

KMG