Tenacibaculum aestuarii

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Classification

Higher order taxa

Bacteria; Bacterioidetes; Flavobacteria; Flavobacteriales; Flavobacteriacae; Tenacibaculum:

Species

Tenacibaculum aestuarii:

Morphology and Physiology

Tenacibaculum aestuarii (Strain SMK-4T, 16S rRNA gene sequence DQ314760) is a species of the genus Tenacibaculum. Like the other species in Tenacibaculum, T. aestuarii is rod-shaped, unflagellated, Gram-negative, and pale yellow. As is also typical for the genus, Tenacibaculum aestiarii is motile by gliding. Individual bacteria measure 0.3 X 2.0-3.5 µm in size; colonies exhibit an irregular, spreading edge and reach 5-10 mm in diameter after five days.

Tenacibaculum aestuarii is capable of the hydrolysis of both casein and gelatin, but not starch; as a result, it utilizes tryptone and peptone exclusively as sources of energy and carbon. The major fatty acids present are iso-C15 : 0, iso-C16 : 0 3-OH and C16 : 1v7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH. As in other Tenacibaculum species, the menaquinone MK-6 is responsible for the T. aestuarii's gliding motility in the absence of flagella. Enzymes present in Tenacibaculum aestuarii include alkaline phosphatase, esterase (C4), leucine, arylamidase, valine arylamidase, α-chymotrypsin, acid phosphatase, phosphohydrolase, and β-glucosidase.

Tenacibaculum aestuarii is inhibited by the antibiotics cephalothin, lincomycin, oleandomycin, and carbenicillin; polymyxin B, streptomycin, penicillin G, ampicillin, gentamycin, novobiocin, tetracycline, kanamycin, and neomycin are ineffective against it.

Isolation and Habitat

Jung et al. isolated Tenacibaculum aestuarii from tidal flat sediment from Saemankum, Pyunsan, Korea in 2006.

As expected from its seaside habitat, T. aestuarii requires the presence of NaCl for growth but no growth occurs in solutions with more than 7% NaCl. The minimum pH required for growth is 5.5, with optimal growth occurring within the range of 7.5-8.5. T. aestuarii can grow within 9 and 41°C; the optimal range is 30-37°C.

Relation to Other Taxa

T. aestuarii is a member of the genus Tenacibaculum, proposed in 2001 by Suzuki et al. as a member of the family Flavobacteriacae; as of early 2014, the genus contains 20 known species. T. aestuarii shares with the other members of the genus its rod-shaped, unflagellated body, its Gram-negative character, yellow color, gliding motility, and maritime habitat, but was ultimately assigned to the genus based on a gene sequence similarity of 95.2-98.6% to type strains of other recognized Tenacibaculum species. At the time of its isolation, T. aestuarii's closest relative was T. lutimaris, with which it shared the aforementioned characteristics with the addition of a habitat in tidal sediment on the Yellow Sea. T. aestuarii differs from T. lutimaris in that it exhibits less variety in cell length, slower-growing colonies, more of the enzyme esterase lipase (C8), and lacks the enzyme trypsin (although it has structurally-similar chymotrypsin).

References

[http://ijs.sgmjournals.org/content/56/7/1577.full.pdf Jung, S., Oh, T., Yoon, J., "Tenacibaculum aestuarii sp. nov., isolated from a tidal flat sediment in Korea". "International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology". 2006. Volume 56. p. 1577-1581.]

Suzuki, M., Nakagawa, Y., Harayama, S., Yamamoto, S., "Phylogenetic analysis and taxonomic study of marine Cytophaga-like bacteria: proposal for Tenacibaculum gen. nov. with Tenacibaculum maritimum comb. nov. and Tenacibaculum ovolyticum comb. nov., and description of Tenacibaculum mesophilum sp. nov. and Tenacibaculum amylolyticum sp. nov.". "International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology". 2001. Volume 51. p. 1639-1652.

Yoon, J., Kang, S., Oh, T., "Tenacibaculum lutimaris sp. nov., isolated from a tidal flat in the Yellow Sea, Korea". "International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology". 2005. Volume 55. p. 793-798.

[1] Edited by (Sam Meader), student of Rachel Larsen at the University of Southern Maine