Winogradskyella pacifica

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Classification

Higher order taxa

Bacteria; "Bacteroidetes"; "Flavobacteria"; "Flavobacteriales"; "Flavobacteriaceae"; "Winogradskyella"

Species

"Winogradskyella pacifica"

Description and significance

A newly discovered strain of marine bacterium was isolated from the Sea of Japan and designated the name KMM 6019T . The 16S rRNA gene sequence for the novel strain revealed that its DNA is 94.0-97.8% similar within the genus "Winogradskyella". The genus "Winogradskyella" is composed seven different species of marine bacteria. They have been isolated from seawater, sediment and animals. These organisms are members of the "Flavobacteriaceae" family. The novel strain of "Winogradskyella" "pacifica" named KMM 6019T was collected and isolated from coastal seawater in the Amursky Bay, Gulf of Peter, Sea of Japan.1 [1]

Fig. 1. Displays the phylogenetic tree of organisms belonging to the "Winogradskyella" genus. KMM 6019T is most clsely related to "Winogradskyella" "thalassocola" KMM 3907T. The DNA sequences between the two strains have a 97.8% similarity.1 The gram negative bacillus strain is 0.4-.5mm wide and 1.0-2.3mm long. KMM 6019T is an aerobic strain that exhibited motility by gliding, the strain forms yellow colored cultures that are 2-3mm in diameter and have a shiny edges. Growth of the cell occurs between 4 degrees Celsius and 30 degrees Celsius (optimum temperature for growth is 28 degrees Celsius) in seawater that is 1-5% NaCl (the optimum salinity is 1-3 degrees Celsius). The 16S rRNA gene sequence for Winogradskyella pacifica KMM 6019T.1 [2]

Fig. 2. Displays a microscopic image of an organism belonging to the genus Winogradskyella. The shape and size is typical for species within this genus including Winogradskyella pacifica KMM 6019T.1,2

Cell Metabolism

"Winogradskyella" "pacifica" KMM 6019T metabolizes cellulose, D-mannose and maltose to produce acid. The metabolism of this strain shares many of its physiological traits with other members of the genus such as, producing phosphatase, gelatinase and oxidase. Its ability inositol, mannitol and sorbitol as a source of energy as well as producing hydrogen sulfide differs from that strains closely related to it.1

Current Research

The DNA G+C content has been determined to be 35.3 mol% in the "Winogradskyella" "pacifica" KMM 6019T strain. Also the fatty acid content of the strain has also been determined to be iso-C15:0, iso-C15:1, anteiso-C15:0, iso-C15:0 3-OH, iso-C16:0 3-OH, C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH and iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1v7c. This fatty acid content is typical for species found within the "Winogradskyella" genus.

Future Research

The strains belonging to "Winogradskyella" "pacifica" are very similar phenotypically and physiologically. The strains do exhibit slight differences in the type of molecules that they metabolize. This difference in diets between the strains could be used as a way to separate and isolate specific strains of the bacteria. For example "Winogradskyella" "pacifica" KMM 6019T is able to metabolize inositol, mannitol and sorbitol as well as producing hydrogen sulfide while strains closely related to it do not. If both strain types were living in a culture then by providing only types molecules that the species that a research intends to isolate then the other strain would not survive due to lack of energy. The development of isolation techniques could prove to be a useful tool to scientists studying novel strains of "Winogradskyella" "pacifica".


References

[1] Seung Bum Kim, Olga I. Nedashkovskaya. " Winogradskyella pacifica sp. nov., a marine bacterium of the family Flavobacteriaceae ". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2010. Volume 60. p. 1948-1951. [2] [3] Image of Winogradskyella

Edited by Raymond Borg, student of Rachel Larsen at the University of Southern Maine